Use of mof Nanoparticles For Water and Sewage
Use of mof Nanoparticles
Water can be physically, chemically, and microbiologically polluted via different processes. Harmful diseases such as Chronic kidney disease (CKD) pancreas, brain, leukemia, and thyroid cancers  are contributed to water pollution(.Use of mof Nanoparticles)
Children are the most vulnerable group against this sort of disease(in 2016 , 940,000 deaths were related to pollution, two-thirds of them was under age 5
. therefore, pollution prevention and water treatment can be considered as the major opportunities to prevent disease and boosting the societies’ health
. In order to achieving this goal, polluted water needs to be purified (some methods of purification are included: reverse osmosis, electrodeionization—EDI, sedimentation, ultrafiltration, ion exchange, biosorption, and ultraviolet (UV) light]).
International organizations such as World Health Organization (WHO) issued some standards for maximum contaminant level (MCL) of different contaminants in drinking water
This organization also, introduced General techniques such as coagulation, chemical precipitation, ion-exchange, filtration to treat polluted water.
One of the most recent methods which has been used broadly for water purification is mof Nanoparticles(for adsorbing and removing toxic organic and inorganic components of water) However, higher efficient methods need to and cheaper easy maintenance to become desirable.
In this paper we have reviewed methods of water purification based on mof Nanoparticles, from different aspects and perspectives.
Water pollution occurs when a body of water is adversely affected due to the addition of large amounts of materials to the water.
Three major water pollutants can be categorized in physical(plastic, leaves etc), chemical(such as heavy metal elements ), and biological(microbial pollution ) ones. Normally, water contains some degrees of dissolved heavy metal salts or organic pollutants ].
In other way, water pollution can be defined as the excessive amounts of Organic (such as Crude oil, Chlorinated solvents, chloroform, Food processing waste, Trihalomethanes and Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs))and and inorganic(Metals and their compounds, Inorganic fertilizers, sulfur dioxide) which can threaten people health and environment stability].
The high levels of these pollutants, were considered as the real thread to peoples’ health.
Heavy metals as the toxic pollutants
Heavy metals are chemical elements with relatively high densities, atomic weights, or atomic numbers, specific gravity of them is five times the specific gravity of water (1°–4°C) Iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu), lead (Pb), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and mercury (Hg) are heavy metals, that high level of accumulation in the environment made them the most important pollutants.
They most important reason for accumulation is human activities like leading acid of batteries, fertilizers, paints, mining and industrial waste, vehicle emissions and waste water .
It means, although several heavy metals are essential for the growth of living organisms; an excess of heavy metals in the environment causes toxic effects .
Heavy metal ions represent a common health hazard throughout the world, due to their toxic effects and accumulation in the human body through water and food consumption . These metals, have a toxic effect on human health
is the most Hazardous Substance on the list Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). It is associated with skin, bladder and lung cancer and people are exposed to it by food and water , maximum amount of this pollutant for a person per daily is 0.01 micrograms per deciliter. This toxic Substance is the result of :Animal feed additive, algaecides, herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, pesticides, rodenticides, sheep dip, tanning and textile, pigments, veterinary medicine, ceramics, special glasses, metallurgy, electronic components, non-ferrous smelters, electrical generation (coal and geothermal), light filters, fireworks.
is a non-essential metal, and has strong teratogenic effects on living organisms. women are more vulnerable against it, especially when they are pregnant maximum amount of this pollutant for a person per daily is.003 mg/l. nickel–cadmium batteries, anti-corrosive metal coatings, alloys, plastic stabilizers, coal combustion, pigments are the sources of it.
which is contributed to stabilizing blood glucose levels, lowering plasma lipids, moderating mood and cognitive function, and reducing biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation maximum amount of this pollutant for a person per daily is 0.05 mg/l. Data storage, plating, ferro-alloys manufacturing, textiles and leather tanning, wood treatment, passivation of corrosion of cooling circuits, pigments are the frequent resources of this pollutant.
uptaking high levels of this metal can create some diseases Wilson disease (WD), a rare disorder typified by increased levels in plasma copper not-bound to ceruloplasmin (nCp-Cu, also known as ‘free’ copper). Maximum amount of this pollutant for a person per daily is 2 mg/l. maine sources of this metal are water pipes, chemicals and pharmaceutical equipment, kitchenware, roofing, alloys, pigments.
lead exposure causes lower IQ and academic achievement, and to a range of socio-behavioural problems such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), learning difficulties, oppositional/conduct disorders, and delinquency . Maximum amount of this pollutant for a person per daily is.001 mg/l. Alloys, ceramics, plastics, glassware, lead-acid batteries, cable sheathings, sheets, solder, pipes and tubing, sheets, ordinance, antiknock agents, tetramethyllead, pigments are the sources of this pollutant.
this metal plays a critical role in serious health problems, it can damage neuro-developmental systems(behavioral, cognitive patterns and motor skills) . Maximum amount of this pollutant for a person per daily is.006 mg/l. Amalgamation (the process of metal extraction), electrical and measuring apparatus, catalysts, dental fillings, Hg vapor lamps, solders, X-ray tubes, pharmaceuticals, fungicides, scientific instruments, electrodes, rectifiers, oscillators, chloralkali cell’s mobile cathode are the main sources of Mercury.
Increasing the incidence of cancers especially lung, nasal sinus, larynx among those who exposure to this metal is recognizes . Maximum amount of this pollutant for a person per daily is.007 mg/l. An alloy in the steel industry, computer components, catalysts, ceramic and glass molds, electroplating, nickel–cadmium batteries, dental and surgical prostheses, arc-welding, rods, pigments are the sources of this metal.
zinc overload causes oxidative stress.
Maximum tolerable daily intake is 0.3–1.0 mg kg1 of body. Zn alloys, PVC stabilizers, gold precipitation from cyanide solution, in chemicals and medicines, anti-corrosion coating, cans, barriers, rubber industry, welding and soldering fluxes, paints are the sources of this metal .