The effect of leadership style on organizational performance by mediating job motivation and organizational culture
(The effect of leadership style)
In the present era, organizations have faced major challenges that many of these challenges have led to restructuring, re-engineering, and shrinking.
The current environment of organizations is more complex and more difficult, and organizations‘ leaders face unpredictable problems that require their high flexibility in solving the problems and confronting the turbulent environment surrounding organizations.
In some organizations, it can be seen that there is no difference between the basic ideas, values, and assumptions of the members of the organization, and this disparity complicates the organization’s overall structure (Yiing, L. Y. & Bin Ahmad, K. Z.).
In recent years, technological advances have made many changes in the corporate environment that these changes, beside rapidly penetrating organizations and influencing their performance, have provided challenges and opportunities for organizations as well.
Therefore, organizations need new strategies to be able to work appropriately alongside challenges with optimal use of opportunities.
Because the importance of organizational performance is to a degree that can be a factor in recognizing the ascension or descend of organizations in the current competitive era (Nori, 1396).The effect of leadership style)
Therefore, organizational performance is a general concept that refers to how an organization performs. The best -known definition of performance is presented by Neilley et al. (2002): “The recognition process the quality of the effectiveness and efficiency of past actions”.
According to this definition, performance is divided into two components: (1) a efficiency (function) that describes how the organization uses resources to produce services or products, that is, the relationship between the actual and desired composition of inputs to achieve certain outputs; and (2) the effectiveness described a degree for achieving the goals in an organization (quoted by Ebrahimi, 1394). Different factors effect on organizational performance.The effect of leadership style)
One of the important factors that considered by experts and scholars is the leadership styles of managers that depend on the manager’s beliefs, values, and personality.
The way managers behave with employees is one of the matters that effect on the service very much. There is no doubt that the success of any section or group within the organization depends on the organization leader merits. On the other hand, the survival and growth of organizations in today’s changing world require the ability to respond in a timely and appropriate manner against successive changes in the environment.
Among them, only organizations can predict the necessities and changes in the environment on time, and continue to focus on and emphasize the native leadership style adapted to their organization and have employees with high job incentives (Jaffari Harandi and Najafi, 1396).
One of the most important predictors of organizational performance is job motivation. Job motivation is a collection of effective forces that emanate from within and beyond the person’s being to initiate the work-related behavior and determine its shape, direction, severity and continuity (Arshadi, 1386, quoted from a Reason, 1396).
There is a lack of motivation for the job motivation. Anxiety refers to a situation in which the person is lacking in motivation and has no reason to do the work.
According to Waller’s (1979) suggestion, lack of motivation in people has both internal and external origins. In external – lack of motivation, the reason for people’s unwillingness to do the job is to feel that their efforts will not have any rewards or positive outcomes.
On the other hand, people without internal motivation do not think that they have the skills, abilities and qualifications needed to perform their work effectively, and thus they will not do any work and become inactive (Baker et al, 2005).
The overall structure and the same organizational beliefs and indicators arise when there is a corporate culture of a form amongst employees and, in particular, the organization must have an organizational culture
. In fact, one of the most important variables in an organization is organizational culture.
Organizational culture can have a positive impact on organizational performance indicators such as performance, self-confidence, self-esteem, personal conduct, entrepreneurship, job satisfaction, human commitment level, organizational design and system, targeting, formulation and implementation of strategies (Arabs, 1394).
Considering the major roles and functions of organizational culture, one can conclude that perhaps no variable in the organization can unite and align the organization’s members as much as culture.
In addition, this unity and alignment in common values and beliefs, if properly managed, can be sustained and remained , so that they shape and mobilize the personality traits and behavior of each member in the organization in this regard.
In general, culture affects thinking about management and staff behavior.
In addition, the existence of an appropriate organizational culture in an organization can improve the performance and effectiveness of the staff and, as a result, increase the efficiency of the organization.
Only by reviewing, changing and creating an appropriate and flexible organizational culture can gradually change the pattern of interaction between individuals in the organization (Ghorbani and Barakat, 1392).
“Ku” research (2011) has shown that leadership style of managers is one of the effective factors in increasing morale, motivation, performance, efficiency and effectiveness, and ultimately productivity in organizations.
It was one of the concerns among organizations and researchers over the past four decades and tries to apply this phenomenon with a number of academic standards (Dulewics; Higgs, 2005).
Different classifications of leadership styles have been done by researchers, but in a new classifier based on how it is done.
“Hallinger; Hec” (2009) and “Leithwood et all” (2010) believe that in organizational systems, research related to leadership effectiveness has a direct effect on performance improvement, and there is a relationship between these two variables (Jafari Harandi and Najafi, 1396).
This study, based on the research background, considers motivation and organizational culture. In fact, one of the main goals of each organization is to achieve performance
To achieve this goal, there is no way except using a systemic, native, and applied perspective.
The impressive successes of the last decade in organizations with minimal facilities and the failure of organizations with the best material capabilities have shown the significant role of immaterial and spiritual factors in their success, among which leadership style, motivation and organizational culture is considered as an effective factor in the performance of the organization.
With regard to importance of organizational performance and the scientific role of this variable in providing services to the organization and achieving its goals, this study was designed to provide a suitable model to examine the effect of leadership style on organizational performance through motivation and organizational culture.
In fact, the paradigm of the leadership style impact on organizational performance and the identification of intermediary variables is one of the management challenges that this study seeks to investigate how the relationship between these variables are presented and to show a suitable model and make suggestions for it.
The present research is applied in terms of its purpose and is descriptive (non-experimental) and survey in terms of obtaining the required data. The population of this study included all employees and directors of the social deputy in Tehran municipality. A sample of 220 people was selected using stratified random sampling. The necessary instruments for collecting data in this research were the following questionnaires:
- A) Leadership Style Questionnaire: A questionnaire used to measure transformational transactional leadership consists of 20 items that have 10 items related to the transformational style and 10 items related to the transformational style, which combines the two questionnaires-the transformational leadership of MLQ – Avivio (1997) which is designed and the transactional leadership assessment questionnaire developed by Mashbaki et al. (2012). “Jafari Harandi & Najafi ” (1396) have used and confirmed this questionnaire and its validity and reliability. The reliability of this questionnaire was 0.87 through Cronbach’s alpha.
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