The Impact of Using Inspirational Quotes Vocabulary Recall
Since the 1970s, attention to vocabulary acquisition strategies has moved away from various aspects of the mechanical memorization of a word list to meaningful learning and deeper processing strategies. Rote memorization is a method in memorization of de-contextualized facts rather than the active construction of new schema.(Inspirational Quotes)
It continues to be an overused strategy that is often implemented within the classrooms.
But exposing students to words just at the surface level or memorizing through rote learning will not be effective and enough (Beck, McKeown, & Kucan, 2002; Graves, 2006; Stahl & Nagy, 2006), as far as not all vocabulary words require the same level (depth) of instruction, students need to know some words deeply in more supportive texts while others may be learned only at the surface level, through rote learning or within the plain sentences.
Considering the fact that human beings think, feel, and act, Zambrana-Ortiz (2011) believes that emotions are related to the body as well as mind.
Gadanho and Hallam (2001) considered positive emotions as ludic.
Isen and Baron (1991) summarized that feeling happy gives more flexibility to thinking, provides easy associations and the ability to see potential relations among events than a non-happy mood.(Inspirational Quotes)
Gray (2001) and Gray and Braver (2002) presented a separate theoretical account that argued the specialized hemispherical basis of interactions between positive affect and cognitive control.
Accordingly, an important compatibility is found between earlier affective research on the effect of positive emotions caused by increased activity in the left frontal cortex (Canli et al., 2001), and cognitive research associated the active prolongation of verbal information in working memory with the left frontal cortex (D’Esposito et al., 1998).
The role of the affective system may be crucial in helping children to relate what is conceptual to our inner feelings (Kousta et al., 2011; Vigliocco et al., 2014).
In a second study with children aged 6-11, Ponari et al. (2017) used a lexical decision-making method to determine the role of emotion in the perception of abstract and concrete terms. Results indicate that emotional word associations play a greater role in the acquiring of abstract, compared to specific words (age of learning standards).
In this way, in developing abstract semantic representations in a meaningful learning context, the acquisition of words signifying emotions, moods or feelings may be crucially instrumental.
Vocabulary instruction required teachers to support learners with many rich and robust opportunities to learn new words and their meanings.
A combination of linguistic and affective information of abstract concepts is directly established in the corpus-based model of Vigliocco et al. (2009). Therefore, through being embedded in senseful, emotionally rich and motivating contexts, efficient learning of abstract vocabulary will occur successfully. As Snow and Farr (1987) suggest that we miss sound learning theories and in the realm of language learning we require a whole-person view that integrates cognitive and affective aspects.(Inspirational Quotes)
These researchers recommend that educators cannot set these key psychological aspects aside because they interact in significant and complicated ways underlying learning/cognitive processes and performance outcomes.
Many researchers have proposed the use of quotations in classroom developments.
Marlene Caroselli (2006, p. 77) proposes the use of quotations as one of 500 classroom games and activities. According to Recchia and Jones (2012) language contexts richness facilitates abstract concept recognition and recall, it can be assumed that inspirational quotes as a source of inspiration, positive emotion, and positive motivation can be a potential context for learners’ emotional and motivational involvement in such a way that positively influence their cognitive ability and also present learners with a rich and supportive context for learning the meaning of abstract concepts. We argue that to foster such re-empowerment, some knowledge of cognitive neuroscience should be included in the educational curriculum.
1.1 Motivation and Cognition Interaction
It is complicated to induce ultimate presumption with reference to the precise connection between motivational and neurological systems because of the complicated correlations in the brain. According to Braem, Verguts, Roggeman and Notebaert (2012), some researchers suppose that many brain sectors and neurotransmitter are required in the psychological augmentation of behavior.(Inspirational Quotes)
Based on Tulving (2016), dopamine is necessitate in learning, memory, and motivation, so a lot of studies have presented its function for the cognitive process in understanding new information that is intently related to the mechanisms of the brain’s pleasure. Moreover, Westbrook, Kester and Braver (2013) asserted that, in humans, dopamine has only been applied in the hippocampus accompanied with long-term memory and in the influence of motivation on cognition.
Regarding this function in working memory, dopamine can be considered as a main factor for regulating consideration and attention.
Also, Zwiers (2016) stated that working memory can be aroused via applying information practice. It is found that accessibility of attentional resources can affect comprehension and memory in educational situations. It was found that executive component can distribute attention when more than one cognitive activity needs attention, supporting suitable information and obstructing inappropriate information (Weinberg, 2017).
1.2 Abstract vocabulary
In processing concrete and abstract language, there are noticeable argument about the cognitive operations and neural tracks.
Previous studies on verbal learning and memory offered that there are different cognitive operations in processing concrete and abstract words.
Zedelius, Veling, and Aarts (2015) asserted that healthy participants answered faster and more correctly to concrete words in lexical decision tasks. This pattern is based on Dual-Code Theory (DCT) of language representation (Charles, 2014). Based on this theory, abstract words are classified in memory in a verbal representation but concrete words are regulated in memory verbally and imaginatively. According to this model, the verbal stream is situated in the left hemisphere of the brain and the image-based stream is settled in the right hemisphere.(Inspirational Quotes)
Abstract notions may be semantically ruined and get their meaning mainly from their connection with other terms (Charles, 2014).
Otherwise, they may not be semantically affluent, but be more grounded in meditative simulations (Zedelius, Veling, and Aarts, 2015) or features of meaning connected to their communicative role. Furthermore, Breton, Mullett, Conover and Shizgal (2017) offered that abstract notions may need brain routes for introspection (Weinberg, 2017). Choi, Padmala, Spechler, and Pessoa (2015) expressed that empirical data and emotional content have an important function in the processing of abstract notions.
Though these findings do not prohibit the likelihood that abstract words are simply established in various kinds of characteristics than are concrete words, given the shallowness of processing that is needed for lexical decision such as simulation of emotions, internal conditions, communication-related words, etc., may verify facilitative in activities needing more processing.(Inspirational Quotes)
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